This page contains two sections:

1.  References for general information on key physiological processes; Gut Health, Immune System, Skin Health, Detoxification, Brain, Metabolism

2. References for the claims made for specific nutrients


References for general information on key physiological processes; Gut Health, Immune System, Skin Health, Detoxification, Brain, Metabolism

  1. Hou, K., Wu, ZX., Chen, al. Microbiota in health and diseases. Sig Transduct Target Ther 7, 135 (2022).
  3. Lephart ED, Naftolin F. Estrogen Action and Gut Microbiome Metabolism in Dermal Health. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2022 Jul;12(7):1535-1550. doi: 10.1007/s13555-022-00759-1. Epub 2022 Jun 25. PMID: 35752663; PMCID: PMC9276867.
  4. De Pessemier B, Grine L, Debaere M, Maes A, Paetzold B, Callewaert C. Gut-Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions. Microorganisms. 2021;9(2):353. Published 2021 Feb 11. doi:10.3390/microorganisms9020353
  5. Darlenski R, Mihaylova V, Handjieva-Darlenska T. The Link Between Obesity and the Skin. Front Nutr. 2022 Mar 10;9:855573. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.855573. PMID: 35369048; PMCID: PMC8965625.
  6. Tremaroli, V., Bäckhed, F. Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism.Nature 489, 242–249 (2012).
  7. Ahmed, Tanvir & Haboubi, Nadim. (2010). Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health. Clinical interventions in aging. 5. 207-16. 10.2147/CIA.S9664.
  8. Via M. The malnutrition of obesity: micronutrient deficiencies that promote diabetes. ISRN Endocrinol. 2012;2012:103472. doi:10.5402/2012/103472
  9. Adams LA, Roberts SK, Strasser SI, Mahady SE, Powell E, Estes C, Razavi H, George J. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease burden: Australia, 2019-2030. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Sep;35(9):1628-1635. doi: 10.1111/jgh.15009. Epub 2020 Feb 26. PMID: 32048317; PMCID: PMC7540570.Gill, V, Kumar, V, Singh, K, Kumar K, Singh J,J. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) May Be a Striking Link Between Modern Diet and Health. Biomolecules2019, 9(12), 888;
  10. Aragno M, Mastrocola R. Dietary Sugars and Endogenous Formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts: Emerging Mechanisms of Disease. Nutrients. 2017 Apr 14;9(4):385. doi: 10.3390/nu9040385. PMID: 28420091; PMCID: PMC5409724.
  11. Prussick R, Prussick L, Nussbaum D. Nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease and psoriasis: what a dermatologist needs to know. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2015 Mar;8(3):43-5. PMID: 25852814; PMCID: PMC4382145.
  12. Ferrucci L, Fabbri E. Inflammageing: chronic inflammation in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and frailty. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;15(9):505-522. doi: 10.1038/s41569-018-0064-2. PMID: 30065258; PMCID: PMC6146930.
  13. Cao C, Xiao Z, Wu Y, Ge C. Diet and Skin Aging-From the Perspective of Food Nutrition. Nutrients. 2020 Mar 24;12(3):870. doi: 10.3390/nu12030870. PMID: 32213934; PMCID: PMC7146365.
  14. Muzumdar S, Ferenczi K. Nutrition and youthful skin. Clin Dermatol. 2021 Sep-Oct;39(5):796-808. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2021.05.007. Epub 2021 May 13. PMID: 34785007.
  15. Ashique S, Sandhu NK, Haque SN, Koley K. A Systemic Review on Topical Marketed Formulations, Natural Products, and Oral Supplements to Prevent Androgenic Alopecia: A Review. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2020 Dec;10(6):345-365. doi: 10.1007/s13659-020-00267-9. Epub 2020 Oct 4. PMID: 33011954; PMCID: PMC7648777.
  16. Bassino E, Gasparri F, Munaron L. Protective Role of Nutritional Plants Containing Flavonoids in Hair Follicle Disruption: A Review. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 14;21(2):523. doi: 10.3390/ijms21020523. PMID: 31947635; PMCID: PMC7013965.
  17. Zmora, N., Suez, J. & Elinav, E. You are what you eat: diet, health and the gut microbiota. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol16, 35–56 (2019).
  18. Conde DM, Verdade RC, Valadares ALR, Mella LFB, Pedro AO, Costa-Paiva L. Menopause and cognitive impairment: A narrative review of current knowledge. World J Psychiatry. 2021 Aug 19;11(8):412-428. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v11.i8.412. PMID: 34513605; PMCID: PMC8394691.
  19. Clemmensen C, Müller TD, Woods SC, Berthoud HR, Seeley RJ, Tschöp MH. Gut-Brain Cross-Talk in Metabolic Control. Cell. 2017 Feb 23;168(5):758-774. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.025. PMID: 28235194; PMCID: PMC5839146.



References for the claims made for specific nutrients.


  1. Jiri Mlcek, Tunde Jurikova, Sona Skrovankova and Jiri Sochor. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response. Molecules 2016, 21(5), 623
  2. Yao Li, Jiaying Yao, Chunyan Han, Jiaxin Yang, Maria Tabassum Chaudhry, Shengnan Wang, Hongnan Liu and Yulong Yin. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Nutrients 2016, 8(3),167
  3. Thanutchaporn Nutmakul. A review on benefits of quercetin in hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Volume 30, Issue 7, July 2022, Pages 918-926
  4. Yuanlu Shi and Gary Williamson. Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre- hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double- blinded, placebo- controlled, cross-over trial. Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 14;115(5):800-6.


  1. Yang M, Akbar U, Mohan C. Curcumin in Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1004. Published 2019 May 2. doi:10.3390/nu11051004
  2. Ledyane Taynara Marton, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Kátia Portero Sloan, Lance Alan Sloan, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Adriano Cressoni Araújo & Marcelo Dib Bechara (2020) Curcumin, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases: going beyond conventional therapy – a systematic review, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1850417
  3. Akbari et al. Frontiers in Pharmacology June 2019 |Volume 10 | Article 649. Front. Pharmacol., 12 June 2019 |
  4. Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS. Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health. Foods. 2017;6(10):92. Published 2017 Oct 22. doi:10.3390/foods6100092
  5. Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun;14(2):141-53. Erratum in: Altern Med Rev. 2009 Sep;14(3):277. PMID: 19594223.
  6. Jadhav P, Jiang Y, Jarr K, Layton C, Ashouri JF, Sinha SR. Efficacy of Dietary Supplements in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Related Autoimmune Diseases. Nutrients. 2020 Jul 20;12(7):2156. doi: 10.3390/nu12072156. PMID: 32698454; PMCID: PMC7400845.
  7. Panahi Y, Hosseini MS, Khalili N, Naimi E, Simental-Mendía LE, Majeed M, Sahebkar A. Effects of curcumin on serum cytokine concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Aug;82:578-82. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.05.037. Epub 2016 Jun 6. PMID: 27470399.
  8. Mut-Salud N, Álvarez PJ, Garrido JM, Carrasco E, Aránega A, Rodríguez-Serrano F. Antioxidant Intake and Antitumor Therapy: Toward Nutritional Recommendations for Optimal Results. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:6719534. doi:10.1155/2016/6719534
  9. Bielak-Zmijewska A, Grabowska W, Ciolko A, et al. The Role of Curcumin in the Modulation of Ageing. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(5):1239. Published 2019 Mar 12. doi:10.3390/ijms20051239
  10. Benameur, T.; Soleti, R.; Panaro, M.A.; La Torre, M.E.; Monda, V.; Messina, G.; Porro, C. Curcumin as Prospective Anti-Aging Natural Compound: Focus on Brain. Molecules 2021, 26, 4794. https://
  11. Fusar-Poli L, Vozza L, Gabbiadini A, Vanella A, Concas I, Tinacci S, et al. Curcumin for depression: a meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2019) 60:2643–53. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2019.1653260 


  1. Marcel B. Roberfroid. Concepts in Functional Foods: The Case of Inulin and Oligofructose. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 129, Issue 7,July 1999, Pages 1398S–1401S
  2. Narinder Kaur & Anil K. Gupta. Applications of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. Journal of Biosciences volume 27, pages703–714 (2002)
  3. Samantha K. Gill, Megan Rossi, Balazs Bajka & Kevin Whelan. Dietary fibre in gastrointestinal health and disease. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology volume 18, pages101–116 (2021)
  4. Festi D, Schiumerini R, Eusebi LH, Marasco G, Taddia M, Colecchia A. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 21;20(43):16079-94. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i43.16079. PMID: 25473159; PMCID: PMC4239493. 

Glycyrrhiza Glabra Root (liquorice root)

  1. El-Saber Batiha G, Magdy Beshbishy A, El-Mleeh A, Abdel-Daim MM, Prasad Devkota H. Traditional Uses, Bioactive Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae). Biomolecules. 2020;10(3):352. Published 2020 Feb 25.
  2. European Medicines Agency. Community herbal monograph on Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and/or Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. and/or Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., radix. Community herbal monograph on Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and/or Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. and/or Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., radix. EMA/HMPC/571119/20. 2012
  3. Health Canada. Glycyrrhiza glabra Monograph. Drugs and Health Products, 2018. http://webprod.h bdipsn/monoRe
  4. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J (eds). Herbal medicine: Expanded commission E monographs. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.
  5. Al-Dujaili EA, Kenyon CJ, Nicol MR, et al. Liquorice and glycyrrhetinic acid increase DHEA and deoxycorticosterone levels in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting adrenal sult2a1 activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2011;336(1-2):102-109. Financial sponsor: MRC Program Grant/Anti-doping Agency to EAD.
  6. Pastorino G, Cornara L, Soares S, Rodrigues F, Oliveira MBPP. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Phytother Res. 2018;32(12):2323-2339. doi:10.1002/ptr.6178
  7. Dhingra, D. , & Sharma, A. (2006). Antidepressant‐like activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mouse models of immobility tests. Progress in Neuro‐Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 30(3), 449–454.
  8. Di Paola, R. , Menegazzi, M. , Mazzon, E. , Genovese, T. , Crisafulli, C. , Dal Bosco, M. , … Cuzzocrea, S. (2009). Protective effects of glycyrrhizin in a gut hypoxia (ischemia)–reoxygenation (reperfusion) model. Intensive Care Medicine, 35(4), 687–697.
  9. Halder, R. M. , & Richards, G. M. (2004). Topical agents used in the management of hyperpigmentation. Skin Therapy Letter, 9(6), 1–3.
  10. Grippaudo, F. R. , & Di Russo, P. P. (2016). Effects of topical application of β‐resorcinol and glycyrrhetinic acid monotherapy and in combination with fractional CO2 laser treatment for benign hand hyperpigmentation treatment. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 15(4), 413–419.
  11. Veratti, E. , Rossi, T. , Giudice, S. , Benassi, L. , Bertazzoni, G. , Morini, D. , … Magnoni, C. (2011). 18β‐Glycyrrhetinic acid and glabridin prevent oxidative DNA fragmentation in UVB‐irradiated human keratinocyte cultures. Anticancer Research, 31(6), 2209–2215
  12. Cinatl, J. , Morgenstern, B. , Bauer, G. , Chandra, P. , Rabenau, H. , & Doerr, H. W. (2003). Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS‐associated coronavirus. The Lancet, 361(9374), 2045–2046
  13. Peterson CT, Sharma V, Uchitel S, et al. Prebiotic Potential of Herbal Medicines Used in Digestive Health and Disease. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(7):656-665. doi:10.1089/acm.2017.0422
  14. Nasri H, Bahmani M, Shahinfard N, Moradi Nafchi A, Saberianpour S, Rafieian Kopaei M. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015;8(11):e25580. Published 2015 Nov 21. doi:10.5812/jjm.25580
  15. Saeedi M, Morteza-Semnani K, Ghoreishi MR. The treatment of atopic dermatitis with licorice gel. J Dermatolog Treat. 2003 Sep;14(3):153-7. doi: 10.1080/09546630310014369. PMID: 14522625.


  1.  Sergio Davinelli, Michael E. Nielsen and Giovanni Scapagnini. Astaxanthin in Skin Health, Repair, and Disease: A Comprehensive Review. Nutrients- 2018, 10 (4),522
  2. Andrea Donoso, Javiera González-Durán, Andrés Agurto Muñoz, Pablo A.González, Cristian Agurto- Muñoza “Therapeutic uses of natural astaxanthin: An evidence-based review focused on human clinical trials”. Pharmacological Research Volume 166, April 2021, 105479
  3. Michael Ash. Astaxanthin: The Key to a New You. Clinical Education:Reviews. 2019.
  4. Davinelli S, Nielsen ME, Scapagnini G. Astaxanthin in Skin Health, Repair, and Disease: A Comprehensive Review. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):522. Published 2018 Apr 22. doi:10.3390/nu10040522
  5. Singh KN, Patil S, Barkate H. Protective effects of astaxanthin on skin: Recent scientific evidence, possible mechanisms, and potential indications. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 Jan;19(1):22-27. doi: 10.1111/jocd.13019. Epub 2019 May 29. PMID: 31141292.
  6. Ito N, Seki S, Ueda F. The Protective Role of Astaxanthin for UV-Induced Skin Deterioration in Healthy People-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2018 Jun 25;10(7):817. doi: 10.3390/nu10070817. PMID: 29941810; PMCID: PMC6073124.
  7. Liu, X. and Osawa, T. Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food. Forum Nutr. 2009;61:129-135
  8. Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Cornelli, U., and Dugall, M. MF Afragil(R) in the treatment of 34 menopause symptoms: a pilot study. Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):49-54
  9. Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Carpentero, Burdeos G., Kimura, F., Satoh, A., and Miyazawa, T. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(11):1563-1571 


  1. Sibusiso Luthuli, Siya Wu, Yang Cheng, Xiaoli Zheng, Mingjiang Wu and Haibin Tong. Therapeutic Effects of Fucoidan: A Review on Recent Studies. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(9), 487
  2. Helen Fitton, Damien N. Stringer, Ah Young Park and Samuel S. Karpiniec. Therapies from Fucoidan: New Developments. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 571Apostolova E, Lukova P, Baldzhieva A, et al. Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fucoidan: A Review. Polymers (Basel). 2020;12(10):2338. Published 2020 Oct 13. doi:10.3390/polym12102338
  3. Dimitrova – Shumkovska, J. et al. Potential Beneficial Actions of Fucoidan in Brain and Liver Injury, Disease, and Intoxication—Potential Implication of Sirtuins Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(5), 242;
  4. Zhang W, Oda T, Yu Q, Jin JO. Fucoidan from Macrocystis pyrifera has powerful immune-modulatory effects compared to three other fucoidans. Mar Drugs. 2015 Feb 19;13(3):1084-104. doi: 10.3390/md13031084. PMID: 25706632; PMCID: PMC4377974.
  5. Cox, A et al. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(8), 412.
  6. Maruyama H, Tamauchi H, Kawakami F, Yoshinaga K, Nakano T. Suppressive Effect of Dietary Fucoidan on Proinflammatory Immune Response and MMP-1 Expression in UVB-Irradiated Mouse Skin. Planta Med. 2015 Oct;81(15):1370-4. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1557821. Epub 2015 Aug 19. Erratum in: Planta Med. 2015 Oct;81(15):E4. PMID: 26287767.
  7. Thompson KD, Dragar C. Antiviral activity of Undaria pinnatifida against herpes simplex virus. Phytother Res. 2004 Jul;18(7):551-5. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1487. PMID: 15305315.
  8. Hayashi T. [Studies on evaluation of natural products for antiviral effects and their applications]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008 Jan;128(1):61-79. Japanese. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.128.61. PMID: 18176057.
  9. Richards C. et al. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(5), 246;
  10. Lean QY, Eri RD, Fitton JH, Patel RP, Gueven N. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 17;10(6):e0128453. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128453. PMID: 26083103; PMCID: PMC4471193.
  11. Mori N, Nakasone K, Tomimori K, Ishikawa C. Beneficial effects of fucoidan in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2012 May 14;18(18):2225-30. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i18.2225. PMID: 22611316; PMCID: PMC3351773.
  12. Song IS, Kim N, Sohn EH, Han J. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory mediators in mice and HepG2 cells. Mar Drugs. 2015 Feb 16;13(2):1051-67. doi: 10.3390/md13021051. PMID: 25690093; PMCID: PMC4344618
  13. Kim MJ, Jeon J, Lee JS. Fucoidan prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in animals by suppression of fat accumulation. Phytother Res. 2014 Jan;28(1):137-43. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4965. Epub 2013 Apr 12. PMID: 23580241.
  14. Lee JH, Lee SH, Choi SH, Asahara T, Kwon SM. The sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan rescues senescence of endothelial colony-forming cells for ischemic repair. Stem Cells. 2015 Jun;33(6):1939-51. doi: 10.1002/stem.1973. PMID: 25693733.
  15. Fitton et al.Therapies from Fucoidan: New Developments.Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 571;
  16. Luthuli S, Wu S, Cheng Y, Zheng X, Wu M, Tong H. Therapeutic Effects of Fucoidan: A Review on Recent Studies. Mar Drugs. 2019;17(9):487. Published 2019 Aug 21. doi:10.3390/md17090487
  17. Kwak JY. Fucoidan as a marine anticancer agent in preclinical development. Mar Drugs. 2014 Jan 28;12(2):851-70. doi: 10.3390/md12020851. PMID: 24477286; PMCID: PMC3944519.
  18. Boo HJ, Hong JY, Kim SC, Kang JI, Kim MK, Kim EJ, Hyun JW, Koh YS, Yoo ES, Kwon JM, Kang HK. The anticancer effect of fucoidan in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Mar Drugs. 2013 Aug 19;11(8):2982-99. doi: 10.3390/md11082982. PMID: 23966032; PMCID: PMC3766877.
  19. Jin JO, Zhang W, Du JY, Wong KW, Oda T, Yu Q. Fucoidan can function as an adjuvant in vivo to enhance dendritic cell maturation and function and promote antigen-specific T cell immune responses. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 9;9(6):e99396. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099396. PMID: 24911024; PMCID: PMC4049775.
  20. Gassmann P, Kang ML, Mees ST, Haier J. In vivo tumor cell adhesion in the pulmonary microvasculature is exclusively mediated by tumor cell--endothelial cell interaction. BMC Cancer. 2010 Apr 30;10:177. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-177. PMID: 20433713; PMCID: PMC2874534.
  21. Yang Y, Gao Z, Ma Y, Teng H, Liu Z, Wei H, Lu Y, Cheng X, Hou L, Zou X. Fucoidan inhibits lymphangiogenesis by downregulating the expression of VEGFR3 and PROX1 in human lymphatic endothelial cells. Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 21;7(25):38025-38035. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9443. PMID: 27203545; PMCID: PMC5122369. 

Ganoderma lucidum (Reiki Mushroom)

  1. Koh J, Kim KM, Kim JM, et al. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26(5):691-694. Financial sponsor: Korea and Dongduk universities, Korea.
  2. PPRC 2010. Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010. Volume I. Beijing (PRC): Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission; 2010.
  3. Hobbs C. Medicinal mushrooms: an exploration of tradition, healing, & culture. Summertown (TN): Book Publishing Company, 2003.
  4. Ding H, Zhou M, Zhang RP, et al. Ganoderma lucidum extract protects dopaminergic neurons through inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators by activated microglia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:156810. Financial sponsor: Ministry of Sciences and Technology of China grants to Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  5. Jin X, Ruiz Beguerie J, Sze DM, et al.: Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6: CD007731, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Upton R, ed.: Reishi Mushroom: Ganoderma Lucidum: Standards of Analysis, Quality Control, and Therapeutics. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 2000.
  7. Cao Q. Z, Lin Z. B. Antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:833–8.
  8. Yuen J. W, Gohel M. D. The dual roles of Ganoderma antioxidants on urothelial cell DNA under carcinogenic attack. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118:324–30.
  9. Jin X, Ruiz Beguerie J, Sze DM, et al.: Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6: CD007731, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Chen H. S, Tsai Y. F, Lin S, editors. et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:5595–601.
  11. Wachtel-Galor S, Yuen J, Buswell JA, et al. Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): A Medicinal Mushroom. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011. Chapter 9. Available from:
  12. Gao Y, Lan J, Dai X, Ye J, Zhou S. A phase I/II study of Lingzhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) extract in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2004;6:33–40
  13. Kim D. H, Shim S. B, Kim N. J, Jang I. S. β-Glucuronidase-inhibitory activity and hepatoprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999;22:162–4. 
  14. Yoon S. Y, Eo S. K, Kim Y. S, Lee C. K, Han S. S. Antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract alone and in combination with some antibiotics. Arch Pharm Res. 1994;17:438–42
  15. Li Z, Liu J, Zhao Y. Possible mechanism underlying the antiherpetic activity of a proteoglycan isolated from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;38(1):34–40. [PubMed] [Reference list]
  16. Wu Y, Wang D. A new class of natural glycopeptides with sugar moiety-dependent antioxidant activities derived from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:436–42

Vitus Vinifera Seed (Grape seed) 

  1. Payal Rathi1, Chatrasal S Rajput2. Antioxidant Potential Of Grapes(Vitis Vinifera): A Review. Journal of Drug Delivery& Therapeutics; 2014, 4(2), 102-104
  2. Nurhan Unusan. Proanthocyanidins in grape seeds: An updated review of their health benefits and potential uses in the food industry. Journal of Functional Foods. Volume 67, April 2020
  3. Perestrelo, C. Silva, J. Pereira, José S. Câmara. HEALTHY EFFECTS OF BIOACTIVE METABOLITES
    FROM VITIS VINIFERA L. GRAPES: A REVIEW. Grapes: Production, phenolic composition and potential biomedical effects (2014): 305-338.
  4. Zheng Feei Ma and Hongxia Zhang. Phytochemical Constituents, Health Benefits, and Industrial Applications of Grape Seeds: A Mini-Review Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 71
  5. Martin ME, Grao-Cruces E, Millan-Linares MC, Montserrat-de la Paz S. Grape (Vitis vinifera) Seed Oil: A Functional Food from the Winemaking Industry. Foods. 2020;9(10):1360. Published 2020 Sep 25. doi:10.3390/foods9101360
  6. Shinagawa F.B., De Santana F.C., Torres L.R.O., Mancini-Filho J. Grape seed oil: A potential functional food? Food Sci. Technol. 2015;35:399–406. doi: 10.1590/1678-457X.6826.
  7. Choi Y., Lee J. Antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of a tocotrienol-rich fraction from grape seeds. Food Chem. 2009;11:1386–1390. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.018.
  8. Fernandes L., Casal S., Cruz R., Pereira J.A., Ramalhosa E. Seed oils of ten traditional Portuguese grape varieties with interesting chemical and antioxidant properties. Food Res. Int. 2013;50:161–166. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2012.09.039
  9. Zhao L, Yagiz Y, Xu C, Lu J, Chung S, Marshall MR. Muscadine grape seed oil as a novel source of tocotrienols to reduce adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation. Food Funct. 2015 Jul; 6(7):2293-302.
  10. .Santangelo C, Varì R, Scazzocchio B, Di Benedetto R, Filesi C, Masella R. Polyphenols, intracellular signalling and inflammation. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2007; 43(4):394-405.
  11. Grape polyphenols and propolis mixture inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human leukocytes and reduces clinical scores in experimental arthritis.
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  13. Sharif A., Akhtar N., Khan M.S., Menaa A., Menaa B., Khan B.A., Menaa F. Formulation and evaluation on human skin of a water-in-oil emulsion containing Muscat hamburg black grape seed extract.  J. Cosmet. Sci. 2015;37:253–258. doi: 10.1111/ics.12184.
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Camellia Sinensis Leaf (Green tea leaf)

  1. Parmar Namita, Rawat Mukesh and Kumar J. Vijay. Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea): A Review Global Journal of Pharmacology 6 (2): 5259, 2012
  2. Rosalind J. Moore, Kim G. Jackson and Anne M. Minihane. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function. British Journal of Nutrition (2009), 102, 1790–1802
  3. Mariangela Rondanelli, Antonella Riva, Giovanna Petrangolini, Pietro Allegrini, Simone Perna, Milena Anna Faliva, Gabriella Peroni, Maurizio Naso, Mara Nichetti, Federica Perdoni and Clara Gasparri. Effect of Acute and Chronic Dietary Supplementation with Green Tea Catechins on Resting Metabolic Rate, Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 644;
  4. Tia M.Rains, Sanjiv Agarwal & Kevin C.Maki. Antiobesity effects of green tea catechins: a mechanistic review. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Volume 22 , Issue 1. 2011.
  5. Cai Y.-J., Ma L.-P., Hou L.-F., Zhou B., Yang L., Liu Z.-L. Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated peroxidation of rat liver microsomes.  Phys. Lipids. 2002;120:109–117. doi: 10.1016/S0009-3084(02)00110-X.
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  8. Piva G., Fracassetti D., Tirelli A., Mascheroni E., Musatti A., Inglese P., Piergiovanni L., Rollini M. Evaluation of the antioxidant/antimicrobial performance of Posidonia oceanicain comparison with three commercial natural extracts and as a treatment on fresh-cut peaches (Prunus persica Batsch) Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2017;124:54–61. doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.10.001. 
  9. Pournourmohammadi S., Grimaldi M., Stridh M.H., Lavallard V., Waagepetersen H.S., Wollheim C.B., Maechler P. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) activates AMPK through the inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase in muscle and pancreatic ß-cells: A potential beneficial effect in the pre-diabetic state?  J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2017;88:220–225. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2017.01.012.
  10. Sabu M., Smitha K., Kuttan R. Anti-diabetic activity of green tea polyphenols and their role in reducing oxidative stress in experimental diabetes.  Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83:109–116.
  11. Levy Y., Narotzki B., Reznick A.Z. Green tea, weight loss and physical activity.  Nutr. 2017;36:315. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.11.001.
  12. Janssens P.L.H.R., Hursel R., Westerterp-Plantenga M.S. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.  Behav. 2016;162:83–87. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.01.044
  13. Weinreb O., Mandel S., Amit T., Youdim M.B. Neurological mechanisms of green tea polyphenols in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.  Nutr. Biochem. 2004;15:506–516. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.05.002
  14. Maeda Y. Inhibitory effects of tea extracts on histamine release from mast cells.  Jpn. Food Hyg. 1980;30:295–299. doi: 10.3358/shokueishi.30.295
  15. Hu S., Zhang X., Chen F., Wang M. Dietary polyphenols as photoprotective agents against UV radiation.  Funct. Foods. 2017;30:108–118. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2017.01.009.
  16. Hasegawa R., Chujo T., Sai-Kato K., Umemura T., Tanimura A., Kurokawa Y. Preventive effects of green tea against liver oxidative DNA damage and hepatotoxicity in rats treated with 2-nitropropane. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1995;33:961–970. doi: 10.1016/0278-6915(95)00064-9.
  17. Hamdaoui M.H., Snoussi C., Dhaouadi K., Fattouch S., Ducroc R., Le Gall M., Bado A. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea.  Nutr. Intermed. Metab. 2016;6:33–40. doi: 10.1016/j.jnim.2016.07.002.
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  19. Li J., Sapper T.N., Mah E., Moller M.V., Kim J.B., Chitchumroonchokchai C., McDonald J.D., Bruno R.S. Green tea extract treatment reduces NFκB activation in mice with diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by lowering TNFR1 and TLR4 expression and ligand availability.  Nutr. Biochem. 2017;41:34–41. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.12.007.
  20. Reddyvari H., Govatati S., Matha S.K., Korla S.V., Malempati S., Pasupuleti S.R., Bhanoori M., Nallanchakravarthula V. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albinowistar rats.  Adv. Res. 2017;8:289–295. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2017.02.002.
  21. Bu-Abbas A., Clifford M., Walker R., Ioannides C. Contribution of caffeine and flavanols in the induction of hepatic phase II activities by green tea. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1998;36:617–621. doi: 10.1016/S0278-6915(98)00019-2. 

Cynara Scolymus Leaf (Globe Artichoke)

  1. Mohaddese Mahboubi. Cynara scolymus (artichoke) and its efficacy in management of obesity. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo UniversityVolume 56, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages 115-120
  2. Sepideh Miraj and Sadegh Kiani. Study of therapeutic effects of Cynara scolymus L.: A review. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (9):168-173
  3. Heitor Oliveira Santos, Allain Amador Bueno, João Felipe Mota. The effect of artichoke on lipid profile: A review of possible mechanisms of action. Pharmacological ResearchVolume 137, November 2018, Pages 170-178
  4. Colak E, Ustuner MC, Tekin N, et al. The hepatocurative effects of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats. Springerplus. 2016;5:216. Published 2016 Feb 29. doi:10.1186/s40064-016-1894-1
  5. Lattanzio V et al. Globe artichoke: A functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. Journal of Functional Foods · March 2009

Panax Ginseng Root

  1. Jae Joon Wee, Kyeong Mee Park, and An-Sik Chung. Biological Activities of Ginseng and Its Application to Human Health. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. 2011.
  2. Ki Hyun Kim, Dahae Lee, Hye Lim Lee, Chang-Eop Kim, Kiwon Jung, Ki Sung Kang. Beneficial effects of Panax ginseng for the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases: past findings and future directions. Journal of Ginseng ResearchVolume 42, Issue 3, July 2018, Pages 239-247
  3. Soowon Kang and Hyeyoung Min. Ginseng, the 'Immunity Boost': The Effects of Panax ginseng on Immune System. J Ginseng Res. 2012 Oct; 36(4): 354–368.
  4. Sun Hee Hyun, Ha-Young Ahn, Hyeong-Jun Kim, Sung Won Kim, Seung-Ho So, Gyo In, Chae-Kyu Park & Chang-Kyun Han. Immuno-enhancement effects of Korean Red Ginseng in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Ginseng ResearchVolume 45, Issue 1, January 2021, Pages 191-198
  5. Jung N. P, Jin S. H. Studies on the physiological and biochemical effect of Korean ginseng. Korean J Ginseng Sci. 1996;20:431–71
  6. Sotaniemi E. A, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:1373–5.
  7. Vulksan V, Sung M. K, Sievenpiper J. L, editors. et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled study of efficacy and safety. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18:46–56. 
  8. Yun T. K. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:63–74
  9. Helms S. Cancer prevention and therapeutics: Panax ginseng. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9:259–74
  10. Jung N. P, Jin S. H. Studies on the physiological and biochemical effect of Korean ginseng. Korean J Ginseng Sci. 1996;20:431–71.
  11. Hwang J. T, Kim S. H, Lee M. S, editors. et al. Anti-obesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:1002–8.
  12. Zhang J. T, Qu Z. W, Liu Y, Deng H. L. Preliminary study on antiamnestic mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1. Chin Med J. 1990;103:932–8
  13. Kim J. H, Cho S. Y, Lee J. H, editors. et al. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg3 against homocysteine-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2007;1136:190–9.
  14. Joo S. S, Yoo Y. M, Ahn B. W, editors. Prevention of inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity by Rg3 and its role in microglial activation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1392–6.


  1. Lidiane Advincula de Araújo, Flavia Addor, Patrícia Maria, Berardo Gonçalves, Maia Campos. Use of silicon for skin and hair care: an approach of chemical forms available and efficacy. An Bras Dermatol. 2016 May-Jun; 91(3): 331–335, 2016.
  2. Anderson Oliveira Ferreira, Érika Santos Freire, Hudson Caetano Polonini, Paulo José Lopes Cândido Da Silva, Marcos Antônio Fernandes Brandão and Nádia Rezende Barbosa Raposo. Anti-Aging Effects of Monomethylsilanetriol and Maltodextrin- Stabilized Orthosilicic Acid on Nails, Skin and Hair. Cosmetics 2018, 5(3), 41. 2018


  1. Colombo VE, Gerber F, Bronhofer M, Floersheim GL. Treatment of brittle nails and onychoschizia with biotin: scanning electron microscopy. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 1127-1132, 1990
  2. Higdon Jane. An Evidence-based approach to vitamins and minerals. Health Benefits and intake recommendations – Biotin. Thieme, New York & Stuttgart., pp. 1 – 5. 2003
  3. Karlyle G. Bistas and Prasanna Tadi. Biotin. StatPearls Publishing 2022

Alpha-Lipoic Acid

  1.  Bahare Salehi, Yakup Berkay Yılmaz, Gizem Antika, Tugba Boyunegmez Tumer, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Devina Lobine, Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Riaz, Esra Capanoglu, Farukh Sharopov, Natália Martins, William C. Cho and Javad Sharifi-Rad. Insights on the Use of α-Lipoic Acid for Therapeutic Purposes. Biomolecules 2019, 9(8), 356, 2019
  2. Nikolaos Papanas 1, Dan Ziegler. Efficacy of α-lipoic acid in diabetic neuropathy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014 Dec;15(18):2721, 31


  1. Rosemary A Fricker, Emma L Green, Stuart I Jenkins, and Síle M Griffin. The Influence of Nicotinamide on Health and Disease in the Central Nervous System. International Journal of Tryptophan Research. 2018
  2. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Niacin and Niacinamide (Vitamin B3). Therapeutic Research faculty. 2004


  1. H Osiecki. Zinc Monograph. The Nutrient Bible Bio Concepts. Publishing Pg 137-139, 2004
  2. Rostan Et al. Evidence supporting zinc as an important antioxidant for the skin. International Journal of Dermatology Vol 41, pg 606-611, 2002
  3. Hyper health. Monograph: Zinc Hyper health. 2007
  4. Rao, G., & Rowland, K.Zinc for the common cold—not if, but when. The Journal of family practice, 60(11), 669–671. 2011


  1. Powers J. Riboflavin (Vit B2) and Health. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1352–60.
  2. L Braun, M Cohen. Herbs & Natural Supplements – An evidence based guide- Monograph Herbs & Natural Supplements – An evidence based guide 2004.
  3. M Zimmermann. Monograph: Vit B2. Burgerstein’s Handbook of Nutrition – Micronutrients in the Prevention & Therapy  of Disease 2001.


  1. Nutrient Reference Values: Pyridoxine B6. Nutrient Reference values for Australia and NZ Commonwealth Dept of Health & Aging. Pg 87-92. 2004
  2. Higdon, J.Vit B6 An Evidence-Based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals.: Thieme. 2003
  3. L Braun, M Cohen. Herbs & Natural supplements – An evidence based guide. Elsevier Mosby, 2005
  4. E Haas. Staying Healthy with NA Nutrition. 1992  


  1. Higdon J. Chromium Monograph. An Evidence based approach to Vitamins and Minerals Health benefits and intake recommendations Thieme: pg109-112, 2003
  2. Braun L, Cohen M. Chromium Monograph. Herbs and Natural Supplements An Evidence based guide: Pg 125-129, 2005  

Vitamin B1

  1. M Zimmermann. Burgerstein’s Handbook of Nutrition – Micronutrients in the Prevention & Therapy  of Disease.Thieme
  2. H Osiecki. The Nutrient Bible
  3. E Haas. Staying Healthy with Nutrition,


  1. Saimai Chatree,Nanthaphop Thongmaen,Kwanchanit Tantivejkul,Chantacha Sitticharoon, Ivana Vucenik. Role of Inositols and Inositol Phosphates in Energy Metabolism. MDPI. 2020
  2. Marine L.Croze,Christophe O.Soulage.Potential role and therapeutic interests of myo-inositol in metabolic diseases. Biochimie, 2013


  1. National Institute of Health. Manganese Fact Sheet. NIH. 2021
  2. Pan Chen, Sudipta Chakraborty, Somshuvra Mukhopadhyay, Eunsook Lee, Monica M. B. Paoliello, Aaron B. Bowman, Michael Aschner. Manganese homeostasis in the nervous system. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2015

Vitamin B12

  1. L Braun, M Cohen. Herbs & Natural supplements – An evidence-based guide. Elsevier Mosby. 2015
  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) 2, Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and contribution to normal neurological and . European Food Safety Authority. 2010


  1. JW Adamson. The relationship of erythropoietin and iron metabolism to red blood cell production in humans. Seminars in Oncology, 1994
  2. CP Gupta. Role of Iron (Fe) in the Body. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014